Presente tiempo (present tense)

Ar verbos

Yo o Nos. amos
as Vos. áis
Ud., El, Ella a Uds., ellos, ellas an

Er Verbos

Yo o Nos. emos
es Vos. éis
Ud., El, Ella e Uds., ellos, ellas en

Ir Verbos

Yo o Nos. imos
es Vos. ís
Ud., El, Ella e Uds., ellos, ellas en

Pretérito Tiempo (preterit tense)

Ar Verbos

Yo é Nos. amos
aste Vos. asteis
Ud., El, Ella ó Uds., ellos, ellas aron

Er/ir Verbos

Yo í Nos. ímos
iste Vos. ísteis
Ud., El, Ella Uds., ellos, ellas ieron

Irregular verbos

Pres. Indic.

Yo voy Nos. vamos
vas Vos. vais
Ud., El, Ella va Uds., ellos, ellas van

Pres. Subj.

Yo vaya Nos. vayamos
vayas Vos. vayáis
Ud., El, Ella vaya Uds., ellos, ellas vayan

Imp. Indic.

Yo iba Nos. ibamos
ibas Vos. ibais
Ud., El, Ella iba Uds., ellos, ellas iban

Pret. Indic.

Yo fuí Nos. fuimos
fuiste Vos. fuisteis
Ud., El, Ella fué Uds., ellos, ellas fueron

Imp. Subj.

Yo fuera or fuese Nos. fuéramos or fuésemos
fueras or fueses Vos. fuerais or fuereis
Ud., El, Ella fuera or fuese Uds., ellos, ellas fueron or fuesen


Yo Nos. vayamos (vamos)
ve Vos. id
Ud., El, Ella vaya Uds., ellos, ellas vayan

Pres. Part

Pensar (When stressed the stem vowel e becomes ie)
Pres. Indic.

Yo pienso Nos. pensamos
piensas Vos. pensáis
Ud., El, Ella piensa Uds., ellos, ellas piensan

Pres. Sub.

Yo piense Nos. pensemos
pienses Vos. penséis
Ud., El, Ella piense Uds., ellos, ellas piensen


Yo Nos. pensemos
piensa Vos. pensad
Ud., El, Ella piense Uds., ellos, ellas piensen

Contar (when stressed the stem vowel o becomes ue)
Pres. Indic.

Yo cuento Nos. contamos
cuentas Vos. contáis
Ud., El, Ella cuenta Uds., ellos, ellas cuenten

Pres. Sub.

Yo cuente Nos. contemos
cuentes Vos. contéis
Ud., El, Ella cuente Uds., ellos, ellas cuenten


Yo Nos. contemos
cuenta Vos. contad
Ud., El, Ella cuente Uds., ellos, ellas cuenten

Pres. Indic.

Yo anduve Nos. anduvimos
anduviste Vos. anduvisteis
Ud., El, Ella anduvo Uds., ellos, ellas anduvieron

Imp. Subj.

Yo anduviera or anduviese Nos. anduviéramos or anduviésemos
anduvieras or anduvieses Vos. anduvierais or anduvieseis
Ud., El, Ella anduviera or anduviese Uds., ellos, ellas anduvieran or anduviesen

Asking Questions

Asking a simple question: a simple question is one that elicits either a “yes” or “no” answer.  To do this place the conjugated verb in front of the subject.

i.e. Tú hablas ingles. Becomes ¿Hablas tú ingles?

Asking a complex question: asking a complex question is one that elicits a response other than yes or no

¿Quién? ¿Quiénes?       Who?
¿Qué?                          What?
¿Cuándo?                    When?
¿Dónde?                       Where?
¿Por qué?                      Why?
¿Cómo?                         How?

Ex. ¿Dónde viven ellos? – Where do they live?

Asking a limiting question: Asking a limiting question involves an inquiry as to which, how much, or how many.

¿Cuál?                                                         Which? (sing.)
¿Cuáles?                                            Which? (pl.)
¿Cuánto? (masc.); ¿Cuánta? (fem.)     How much?
¿Cuántos? (m.); ¿Cuántas? (f.)            How many?

Ex. ¿Cuál prefieres? – Which (one) do you prefer?

Ser and Estar

Ser is used in enduring situations, while estar is used in situations that are short-term, or which involve location or the result of some action.  Thus, if you want to say, “I am a human being” you would use ser, but if you want to say “I am kneeling”, “I am in the library”, or “the window is open”, you use estar.



Admitir –to admit
Asistir (a) – to attend
Cubrir – to cover
Decider – to decide
Decribir – to describe
Descubrir – to discover
Discutir- to discuss
Permitir – to permit
Enseñar – to teach
Existir – to exist
Escribir – to write
Recibir – to receive
Subir – to climb, go up
Sufrir – to suffer
Unir – to unite
Andar – to walk; to go; to go about; to run
con cuidado-to be careful; ¡andale! – hurry
buscar – to look for
Caber – to fit into, go into; to have enough room for; to befall
Comprar – to buy
Cometer (un error)  – to make (a mistake)
Contar – to count; to tell, relate; – con to count on, rely on; a – desde starting from, beginning with.
Creer– to believe; to think, suppose ¡ja lo creo! – I should say so! Yes, of course!
Dar – (hacer don) to give, confer; (golpear)to strike, hit; (emitir) give off, emit
Deber – to owe
Meter (en) – to put into
Poseer – to possess, own
Romper – to break
temer – to fear, dread
Destruir- to destroy, to ruin
Esperar – to hope; wait for
Sentir – to feel; to sense; to hear; to regret; -se to feel (well, strong, sad, etc.); to feel oneself, consider oneself; to feel resentment; to feel a pain; sin – without being realized or felt; inadvertently; unnoticed; m. feeling; judgement; opinion
Pedir – to ask, beg, petition; to ask for; to demand; to require; to order (merchandise); a – de boca exactly as desired
Poder – to be able; can; may
Puede que –it is possible that, it may be that, perhaps; hasta más no _ to the utmost, to the limit; no _ mas – not to be able to do more; to be exhausted
Poner – to put; to place; to set; to lay; to suppose
Buscar – to seek, search, look for
Seguir  – to follow; to continue; to pursue; -se to follow as a consequence
Haber – to have
Llegar – to arrive
Llevar – to wear, carry
Cocinar – to cook
Dar – to give, confer; to strike, hit
Haber – to have (auxillary verb)
Debujar/ trazar – to draw
Oír – to hear; to listen; to understand
Ver – to see; to look; to look at; to look into; to examine
Poner – to put; to place; to see; to lay; to suppose
Placer – to please
Oler – to smell; to scent
Gustar; probar; saborear, paladear – to taste
Huir – to flee, escape; avoid, shun
Valer – to favor, protect; to cost; to be worth
Lavar – to wash, to launder
Aprender – to learn
Llamar – to call, to summon; to name; to invoke; _ a la puerta – to knock at the door; -se – to be called, named; Am.(American-Spanish) – to break one’s word or promise
Tomar – to take
Hacer – to do, to make

Nouns (sustantivos)

Los días de la semana (days of the week)

Monday- lunes
Tues –Martes
Wed. – Miércoles
Thurs – jueves
Friday – viernes
Satur. – Sábado
Sun. – domingo

Los Estaciónes (the seasons)

Spring – primavera
Summer – verano
Fall – otoño
Winter – invierno

Meses del año (months of the year)

January – enero
February – febrero
March – marzo
April – Abril
May – Mayo
June – Junio
July – Julio
August – agosto
September – Septiembre
November – Noviembre
December – Diciembre

Los colores (colors)

Red- Rojo
Blue – Azul
Yellow – Amarillo
Green – verde
Purple – púrpura
Orange – Naranja
Brown – Moreno
Gray – gris
White – blanco
Black – Negro

Occupations (Ocupaciónes)

Painter – el pintor
Boss – Jefe
Cook – cocinero
Musician – Músico
Dishwasher – lavaplatos
Fighter – luchador, combatiente; guerrero
Athlete – atleta
Waiter/ waitress – mozo/moza; camarera/camarera


Basketball – basquetbol
Baseball – beisbol
Football – fútbol

Food (Comeda)

Dishwasher (machine) – máquina de lavar platos
Knife – cuchillo, cuchilla
Grill – parrilla
Shrimp – camarón
Spicy – picante
Breakfast – desayuno
Lunch – almuerzo
Dinner – cena
Hungry – hambriento
To be hungry – tener hambrre
Thirsty – sediento
To be thirsty – tener sed
Spinach – espinaca
Artichoke – alcachofa
Bacon – tocino
Beef – carne
Steak – biftec o bisté
Chicken – pollo
Chicken Wing – ala de pollo
Duck – pato, pata
Pork – puerco
Plum – ciruela
Buffalo – búfalo
Berry – baya
Apple – manzana
Cheese – queso
Corn – maíz
Flour – harina
Hamburger – carne picada de vaca; bocadillo o emparedado de carne picada; hamburguesa
Broccoli – Brócoli
Noodle – tallarín, fideo, pasta
Broil – asar(se)
Carrot – zanahoria
Pea – guisante
Pecan – pacana
Radish – rábano
Beet – remolacha
Bean – judía
Fish – pescado
Cabbage – col, repollo, berza
Sour – agrio, acre
Garden – el jardín
Store – tienda
Bakery – la panadería
Oven – el horno


Coro – chorus
La banda – band


El cumplido – compliment
A veces – sometimes
Temprano – early
La cortada – cut, slash
éso/ésa – that one
ésos/ésas – those
eso – that
¡eso! – that’s right
cual – which
siguiente – following
respuesta – response; answer; reply
ropa – clothing
his/ her (s.,pl.) – su/sus
echa una siesta – to take a nap
educación fisica – phys. Ed.
Mientras – while
Vecinos – neighbors

Frases (phrases)

Jack of all trades – aprendiz de todo y official de nada
Well Done – Bien Hecho
Rest- descanso
Row, tier, rank – fila
Another – de otro
Socks – calcetines
Actress – actriz
Broken – roto
Short – bajo
Thin – delgado
Every day – cada día
Sunglasses – las grafas de sol
Bookstore – la libería
Beforehand – antes

Ser and Estar

The simplest but not all-inclusive, dichotomy to be made of ser and estar is to say that ser is used in enduring situations, while estar is used in situations that are short-term, or which involve location or the result of some action.  Thus if you want to say, “I am a human being,” you will use the verb ser, but if you want to say “I am kneeling,” “I am at the library,” or “The window is open,” you will use estar.


Yo soy Nos. Somos
eres Vos. sois
él, ella, ud. es ellos/ellas/uds. son


Yo estoy Nos. estamos
estás Vos. estáis
él, ella, ud. está ellos, ellas, uds. están


Situations in which ser is used:

Origin: one’s origin is an unchangeable fact, one of the few permanent aspects of one’s life.  Therefore you will always be from your hometown.

Yo soy de los Estados Unidos.  I am from the United States.
¿De dónde eres tú? Where are you from?
Yuri es de Rusia. Yuri is from Russia

Relationships: there are two types of relationships one can have with others: familial and selected.

Familial:  These are blood relationships (parents, siblings, cousins, etc.), and even though they may be volatile relationships, they endure.  Thus one says:

Ellos son mis padres.  They are my parents.
Vosotros sois mis hermanos.  You are my brothers.
Ella es mi hermana.  She is my sister.

Selected: Friends, enemies, spouses, employers, etc. achieve relationships with us by selection.  While the status of these relationships does change from time to time, a friend is always a friend.  Thus, one says:

Tú eres mi amigo.  You are my friend.
É les mi esposo.  He is my husband.
Somos vecinos.  We are neighbors.

Physical attributes: Aspects of one’s body are not to be taken lightly: they go everywhere with a person-they are not changed by location or how one feels.  Even though hair color changes from blonde to gray, and beauty fades, these changes do not occur overnight; rather, they are considered enduring.

Yo soy alto.  I am tall.
Rizitos de Oro es rubia.   Goldilocks is blonde
Ellos son delgados.   They are slim.

Personality characteristics: Like physical attributes, personalities do change from time to time: however, people tend to behave and react to life pretty much the same one day to the next (do not confuse one’s personality with his or her moods which can and do change quickly, and thus are covered under estar).

Ella es amable.  She is nice.
Ustedes son cómicos.  You all are funny.
Eres cortés.  You are polite.

Possession:  What is yours is yours and nobody can take it from you.  Even as you write your will, the house and everything init are still yours.  Just because you can’t take them with you doesn’t meant they aren’t yours until you go!

La casa es mía.  The house is mine.
El crystal es mío.  The crystal is mine.
Nada aquí es tuyo.  Nothing here is yours.

Profession:  It is true that most people change jobs, and even careers, many times in their lives.  However, one generally does not accept a job offer only to turn around and write his letter of resignation.  When one is employed, even part-time, the employee takes on the aspects of that position, as though it were an added personality characteristic.

Perry Mason es abogado.  Perry Mason is a lawyer.
Kate Moss y Fabio son modelos.  Kate moss and Fabio are models.
Ustedes son estudiantes.  All of you are students.

Identification:  When identifying anything, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, you will use ser.  Some linguistic philosophers will tell you (if you ask) that, independent of the object, names (or identifying words) are meaningless.  In other words, the name is the object, and thus endures as long as does its referent.

Ésta es una frase.  This is a sentence.
El señor Ed es un caballo.  Mr. Ed is a horse.
Éstos son calcentines. These are socks.

Date and time:  However fleeting time may seem (and therefore short-term-estar territory), it still must be argued that now is now.  In other words, though it may appear odd to regard the statement, ”It is June 11,” as enduring, realize that the unstated subject is “today,” as in “today is June 11.”  Thus, giving the date is actually a form of identification.  Similarly with time, “It is 10:30” has as its unstated subject now.

Hoy es el veintiséis de septiembre.  Today is September 26.
Mañana es sábado.  Tomorrow is Saturday.
¿Qué hora es?  What time is it?
Son las tres de la mañana.  It’s 3:00 a.m.

Nationality:  This is similar to origin, in that your place of birth never can be denied.  However, the United States being the great melting pot that it is, we differ from persons in many other countries because here one’s origin and nationality often differ.  Thus, one could say, Ýo soy de los Estados Unidos,” indicating origin, and, in the same breath, “Yo soy francés,” indicating nationality.  Note that nationalities are not capitalized in Spanish.

Gabriel es colombiano.  Gabriel is Colombian.
La Princesa Diana es inglesa.  Princess Diana is English.
Dudley Doright es canadiense.  Dudly Doright is Canadian.

Natural color:  This is tricky, because color can take either ser or estar, depending on the changeability of the color.  Obviously grass is green, the sky is blue, and snow is white-in the abstract.  However, there are times when the grass is not green, say, after a drought, and who has never seen gray skies or yellow snow? (At these times you would use estar.)  So remember, when an object is referred to in its natural color, you will use ser.

La leche es blanca.  Milk is white.
Mi casa es marrón.  My house is brown.
La bandera de Japón es roja y blanca.  Japan’s flag is red and white.

Situations in which estar is used.

 Location:  The location of anything takes estar.  Whether it is short-term (I am in the shower) or permanent (Paris is in France), if it’s location you’re dealing with, your verb is estar.

Yo estoy en el comedor.  I am in the dining room.
¿Dónde estás tú? Where are you?
¿Dómde está Londres?  Whereis London?

Mood: one’s mood could be termed a short-term personality characteristic.  Our moods describe how we feel at any given moment.  In our discussion of ser, we learned that personality characteristics tend to be pervasive and enduring.  But your moods, like your emotional status, ride the roller coaster of life: One day you’re happy, the next day you’re sad-it all depends on the ever-changing circumstances of life.

Yo estoy feliz.  I am happy.
Ellos están tristes.  They are sad.
Vosotros estáis enjados.  You are angry.
Ella está de buen/mal humor.  She is in a good/bad mood.

Physical condition:  Like your moods, how you feel physically also changes from day to day: one day hale and hearty, the next day sick as a dog.

Ella esta bien.  She is fine.
Estamos enfermos.  We are sick.
Ellos están cansados.  They are tired.

Result of action: This refers to what you are doing.  If you just sat down, it means that you are seated.  Soon you will be standing and, if you are studying this in church, you may be kneeling any minute now.  Even being dead, which is about as enduring as it gets, takes estar, for it is the result of having lived.

Estoy sentado/a. I am seated
Estás de pie.  You are standing.
Ella está de rodillas.  She is kneeling
La mosca está muerta.  The fly is dead.
Estos televisores están dañados.  These television sets are broken.

Unnatural color or condition:   When you are very sick, your face may turn green; however unless you are from another planet, this color is unnatural.  Meat that has sat around too long takes a shade of gray; bananas turn black; and old newspapers turn yellow.  In a nutshell, in describing things that aren’t as they were originally intended, you will use estar.

El cielo está gris.  The sky is gray.
Esta nieve está amarilla.  This snow is yellow.
Las manos están sucias.  Her hands are dirty.
Él está feo con esos pantalones.  He is ugly in those pants.

Going from the general to the particular:  If you like coffee as I do, then you would agree that “El café es la bebida de los dioses”, and you would use ser to express this absolute truth.  This does not mean, however, that every individual cup of coffee in the world is wonderful.  So, when referring to a specific cup of coffee, or plate of spaghetti or order of fries, you will use estar.

Este café está muy bueno.  This coffee is very good.
Este café está malísimo.  This coffee is horrible.
Estas papas fritas están riquísimas.  These French fries are delicious.

Use of ser and estar in context:

Cuando estoy feliz yo canto, pero hoy estoy de mal humor.  Mi gato está enfermo, mi televisor está roto, y este mañana mi café está malísimo.  Hoy es lunes.  Trabajo en un librería.  Dos personas estan en la tienda ahora, un hombre y una mujer.  El hombre es alta y él busca libros que no existen.  ¿Por qué esta aquí?  La mujer es baja y muy delgada.  Ella compra el periódico aquí cada día.  A veces ella lee cinco o seis revistas antes.  Siempre lleva las grafas de sol y un sombrero grande.  Ella es muy misteriosa.  Creo que ella es una espía.  ¿Quien es ella y por qué está aquí?


The verb tener (to have) is important in Spanish, not just because it is such a basic and commonly used verb, but because of its many uses: (1) it can show possession; (2) it is used to show age; (3) it is used in several idiomatic expressions; and (4) it can show obligation.  In this section well consider the four uses.


Tengo                                      tenemos
Tienes                                     tenéis
Tiene                                       tienen


Tengo un perro.                         I have a dog.
Tienes un hermono.                  You have one brother.
Tenemos cinco dólares.            We have five dollars

Idiomatic expressions:  There are several phrases in Spanish that use tener where in English we use the verb to be,  For example, instead of being hungry (an adjective), one has hunger (a noun).  Below is a list of the most common of these idiomatic expressions.  Note (by mucho or mucha) which nouns are masculine and which are feminine.

Tener (mucha) hambre                                to be (very) hungry
Tener (mucha) sed                                      to be (very) thirsty
Tener (mucho) frío                                       to be (very) cold
Tener (mucho) calor                                    to be (very) warm
Tener (mucho) miedo                                  to be (very) afraid
Tener (mucha) suerte                                  to be (very) lucky
Tener (mucha) prisa                                    to be in a (big) hurry
Tener (mucho) sueño                                  to be (very) sleepy, tired
Tener razón                                                 to be right
No tener razón                                            to be wrong

Obligation:  in order to show obligation, you will use:

Tener (conjugated) + que + infinitive

Tengo que practicar el pieno              I have to practice the piano
¿Tenemos que comer esta carne?    Do we have to eat this meat?
Tienes que estudiar.                           You have to study.
Tenéis que limpiar la casa.                 You guys have to clean the house
Juan tiene que estudiar                       Juan has to study.

using tener in context: Me llamo Gregorio y hoy es mi cumpleaños.  Tengo vente nueve años.  Todos mis amigos están en mi casa porque cada año tengo una gran fiesta.  Ellos tienen hambre y sed.  Soy hambre y sed, también.  Tenemos torta, helado, y leche.  Pero primero ellos tienen que cantar feliz cumpleaños.  Dispués nosotros comemos.  Luego abro mis regales porque hay muchos regales para mi.

The Personal “A”

When the direct object of a verb is a specific person (or persons), you must place an a directly before the mention of that person (or persons).  This is known as the personal a.  The direct object is that noun which is affected directly by the verb, and it usually follows the verb immediately in both English and Spanish.


Yo amo a Lucy  – I love Lucy
Miramos a Jorge. – We watch George.
Buscas a mi hermano – You look for my brother

The personal a is unique to Spanish and, as you can see in the examples, it doesn’t translate.  Adding the personal a can been seen as a sign of respect, an acknowledgement that the person is more important than his or her car.

Veo a Juan. – I see John.
Veo el coche de Juan. – I see John’s car.


1.  You will not use the personal a with the verbs ser (to be), tener (to have, or hay (there is, there are):

Juan es colombiano. – John is Columbian.
Tengo dos hermanos. – I have two brothers.
Hay un chico en la casa. – There is a boy in the house.

2. You will not use the personal a when the direct object is an unspecified person.

Necesito una secretaria bilingüe.  – I need a bilingual secretary.
Busco un amigo leal. –I’m looking for a loyal friend.

3.  You will use the personal a with your pets and/ or other animals with whom you have a personal relationship.  You will not use the personal a with strays, nesting birds, alley cats, squirrels in your back yard, insects, cockroaches, and any other animals with whom you do not wish to form an allegiance.

Amo a preciosa gata, Princesa.  – I love my darling cat, Princess.
Odio las termitas.  – I hate termites.

4. In a complex question that requires the personal a, place the a before the interrogative:

¿A quién amas?   –  Who do you love?
¿A quién miras? – Whom are you watching?

5.  When there is a series of direct objects that are people (or pets), each will require a personal a:

Veo a Juan, a María, a Miguel, a Margarita y a Fido.

6.  When the personal a precedes the definite article el, these contract to form al:

Veo al chico. – I see the boy.
Ella ama al hombre.   – She loves the man.

A Dozen Highly Useful Irregular Verbs

Dar (to give)                                                poder (to be able to)
Doy         das        da                                    puedo         puedes      puede
Damos    daís       dan                                  podemos    podéis      pueden

Decir (to say, tell)                                       poner (to put)
Digo             dices     dice                            pongo         pones       pone
Decimos      decís     dicen                          ponemos     ponéis     ponen

Hacer (to make, do)                                    querer (to want)
Hago         haces      hace                             quiero        quieres    quiere
Hacemos   hacéis    hacen                           queremos   queréis    quieren

Ir (to go)                                                     salir (to leave)
Voy        vas        va                                    salgo        sales       sale
Vamos    vais      van                                  salimos    salís       salen

Jugar (to play)                                            venir  (to come)
Juego         juegas      juega                         vengo       vienes      viene
Jugamos    jugáis      juegan                        venimos   venís        vienen

Oír (to hear)                                                ver (to see)
Oigo          oyes      oye                                veo         ves     ve
Oímos       oís         oyen                              vemos    veis    ven

Querer, poder, and deber: Phrases with two verbs

As learned about tener que, when two verbs are next to each other and operate together to form a single idea, the first verb is conjugated and the second verb remains in the infinitive form.

You know that deber means “to owe.”  Directly preceding another verb, however, deber means “ought,” as in “I ought to study.”  The verb deber is regular.  You also know querer means “to want,” and poder means “to be able to.”

Debo salir de la oficina.   I should leave the office.
Podemos ver la luz.         We can see the light.
¿Puedes nadir bien?        Can you swim well?
¿Queréis cenar ahora?     Do you want to eat dinner now?
Ella quiere ser lingüista.  She wants to be a linguist.
¿Queréis cenar ahora?     Do you want to eat dinner now?
Ellos no deben decirnos nada.   They shouldn’t tell us anything.

Hacer and estar: Their use in describing the weather

One specific and important use of the verbs hacer and estar is in talking about the weather.  Bother hacer and estar will operate only in the third person singular in this context, as the subject is the nebulous “it.”  Note that it will always be hace + noun and está + adjective.  Memorize these phrases.

Idioms with hacer

Hace (mucho) frío           it is (very) cold
Hace (mucho) calor        it is (very) warm
Hace (mucho) sol            it is (very) sunny
Hace viento                    it is windy
Hace fresco                    it is cool
Hace (muy) buen tiempo it is (very) nice out
Hace (muy) mal tiempo  it is (very) bad out

Expressions with estar

Está nublado                  it is cloudy
Está lloviendo                 it is rainy
Está nevando                  it is snowing
Está lluvioso                  it is rainy, wet
Está húmedo                  it is humid
Está seco                        it is dry

¿Qué tiempo hace hoy? – What is the weather like today?

Jugar: to play a game:

The verb jugar means, “to play (a game); to gamble.”  Don’t confuse jugar with tocar, which means to play (an instrument).  Below are examples of games one can play.  Note the inclusion of the word a and the appropriate definite article before the name of the game.  Speakers in many countries, however, also use the verb without the a (juego béisbol).

Jugar al ajedrez                         to play chess
Jugar al baloncesto                   to play basketball
Jugar al béisbol                         to play baseball
Jugar al billar                             to play billiards, pool
Jugar a las damas                     to play checkers
Jugar al fútbol                            to play soccer
Jugar al fútbol Americano         to play football
Jugar al golf                              to play golf
Jugar al hockey                        to play hockey
Jugar a un juego                       to play a game
Jugar a los naipes                     to play cards
Jugar al tennis                           to play tennis
Jugar al voleibol                        to play volleyball

Ir + a + infinitive: Expression of future action

When you know the verb ir in the present tense, you can also speak of the future, as in what you are “going to do” or what “is going to happen”.  To do this follow these easy steps:

Ir (conjugated) + a + infinitive

Voy a cantar                                         I am going to sing
Vamos a comprar una lámpara            We are going to buy a lamp
¿Qué vas a hacer mañana?                What are you going to do tomorrow?
¿Cuándo vais a salir del cuarto?         When are you going to leave the room?
Va a llover                                            It’s going to rain.
Ellos no van a estar aquí.                   They aren’t going to be here.

Phrases of future time:

Esta tarde – this afternoon
Esta noche – tonight
La semana que viene – next week
El mes que viene – next month
El año que viene – next year

Use of irregular verbs in context:

Mañana es el cumpleaños de me mejor amigo.  Voy a tener una fiesta para él.  Puedo invitar muchas personas porque mi casa es grande.  Tengo muchas fiestas y siempre hago lo mismo.  Voy a la panadería y compro una torta.  Le Digo al panadero que quiero muchas flores y el nombre de mi amigo en la torta.  Pongo la torta en la mesa en el comedor donde todos pueden verla-oigo que un centro de mesa dramático es importante.  Los invitados vienen a mi casa a siete.  hablamos y comemos y bebemos – a veces bailamos o jugamos un juego-entonces le damos regales al invitado de honor.  Va a ser una fiesta marvillosa.

Saber and Conocer

Just like ser and estar have the same meaning, saber and conocer both mean “to know”.  On closer inspection, they perform two differing functions: saber means “to know information,” while conocer means “to know, or be familiar with, a person, place, or thing.

Saber – Essentially, saber means “to know facts and information.”  It implies full knowledge (while conocer implies familiarity).

Saber – only irregular in the yo form

Sé                                   sabemos
Sabes                             sabéis
Sabe                               saben

Saber: to know information.  When dealing with facts and information, you will use saber.

Sé tu dirección.                                I know your address
Él no sabe dónde trabajo.                He doesn’t know where I work.
Sabemos el número de teléfono.     We know the telephone number.

Saber que….: To know that…  In English we have the option of saying either “I know that he’s here somewhere,” or simply, “I know he’s here somewhere.”  In Spanish, we do not have that option and must include the relative pronoun que (that) which ALWAYS will be followed by a complete sentence.

Sé que su nombre es Juan.  I know that his name is John.
¿Sabes que ella está embarazada?  Do you know that she is pregnant?
Ellos no saben que los vemos.  They don’t know that we see them.

Saber + infinitive: To know how to do something.  To say that you know how to do something in Spanish, you simply add the infinitive immediately after the conjugated saber.  Do not add cómo (how).

Sé leer.  I know how to read
No sé cocinar.  I don’t know how to cook.
Él sabe escribir bien.  He knows how to write well.
Sabemos esquiar.  We know how to ski.

Saber in context:

Juan es mi mecánico.  Él sabe mucho de carros, y estoy felíz porque no sé nada de carros.  No, no es completamente cierto.  Yo sé dónde está el tanque de gasoline y sé llenarlo.  Sé conducir y sé que no puedo aparcar enfrente de una estación de bomberos.  Juan sabe que él tiene que saber de carros y de la gente, porque muchas personas saben muy poco de carros.


If you are familiar with a person, a place, or a thing, you will need the verb conocer.  The key word is familiarity, for one can never know another person, place, or thing completely.

Conocer (to be familiar with)

Conozco                                                     conocemos
Conces                                                       conocéis
Conoce                                                       conocen

*as with saber, the verb is irregular only in the yo form

Conocer + a: To know a person.  When talking about knowing another person (or someone’s pet animal – not a stray), the conjugated conocer will be followed by the personal a except when you use an object pronoun.

Conozco a Felipe.                                        Lo conocemes.
I know Phillip.                                               We know him.

Tú conoces a María.                                    La conocéis.
You know Mary.                                           You know her.

María conoce a Eduardo.                             María y Jorge lo conocen.
Mary knows Edward.                                   Mary and George know him.

Conocer + location: To know a place.  To visit is to become familiar.  Whether you know a location inside-out or hardly at all, you will use conocer.  To indicate how well you know a place, you use muy bien or muy poco.

Conozco Puerto Rico.  I know/am familiar with/have been to Puerto Rico.
La actriz conoce muy bien Hollywood.  The actress knows Hollywood very well.
Las arañas conocen bien mi sótano.  Spiders know my basement well.
Él conoce muy poco Las Vegas.  He is slightly familiar with Las Vegas.

Conocer + noun: To know, be well versed in an area.  Virtually everybody has at least one talent.  Whatever your area of expertise, you know that field, and to say so you will use conocer.

Mi mecánico conoce bien los motores alemanes.  My mechanic knows German engines well.
El fotógrafo conoce las cámaras japonesas.  The photographer knows Japanese cameras.
Juanito conoce los libros del Dr. Seuss.  Johnny knows Dr. Suess’s books.

conocer used in context:

No sé por qué, pero creo que te conozco.  ¿Conoces a mi primo, Enrique? ¿Sí?  Pues, entonces sabes que su esposa sabe hablar ruso-pero ella no leerlo.  Ella tiene muchas fiestas maravillosas porque ella conoce todas las personas y porque ella sabe cocinar como una cocinera profesional.  Sé que quieres conocerla.  Voy a arreglar la presentación.

Stem-Changing Verbs

The two parts of the infinitive are: 1. the ending (-ar, -er, or –ir) and 2. the base (what is left when the ending is removed). Another word for the base is the stem, and with regular verbs, the stem (or base) always remains the same.

The verbs convered in this section have changes that take place in BOTH the stem and the conjugation ending.  There are three kings of stem-changing verbs, and we will consider each separately.

1. o changes to ue: The first group of stem-changing verbs involves changing the stem’s o to ue in all forms but nosotros and vosotros.  Their endings for conjugation remain regular.  Note the examples:

contar – (to count)                             mover (to move)
cuento         contamos                       muevo         movemos
cuentas       contáis                           mueves       movéis
cuenta         cuentan                          mueve         mueven

dormir – (to sleep)
duermo       dormimos
duermes      dormís
duerme        duermen

one of the features of stem-changing verbs is that the change takes place in the first, second, and third person singular, and the third person plural.  If you were to draw a line around these changed verbs, you would come up with something  resembling a boot.  This shape is often referred to as the “boot of irregularity

several o à ue verbs

almorzar  – to eat lunch                       mostrar – to show
aprobar – to approve                           mover – to move
colgar – to hang (up)                           probar – to prove, test, sample, taste
contar – to count                                 recordar – to remember
costar – to cost                                   resolver – to solve
devolver – to return (an object)           rogar – to beg, pray
dormir – to sleep                                  sonar – to sound, ring
encontrar – to find                                soñar (con) – to dream (about)
envolver – to wrap (up)                        tostar – to toast
morder – to bite                                    volver – to return
morir – to die                                        volar – to fly

2. e changes to ie:  The second group of stem-changing verbs involves changing the stem’s e and ie in all forms except nosotros and vosotros.

Cerrar (to close)                       perder (to lose)
Cierro          cerramos               pierdo          perdemos
Cierras        cerráis                  pierdes        perdéis
Cierra          cierran                  pierde          pierden

hervir (to boil)
hiervo          hervimos
hierves        hervís
hierve          hierven

Listed below are severa; e –> ie stem-changing verbs.  Note that a few have both an o and an e in the stem.  You can be sure that these are e–> ie stem-changing verbs (and not o–>ue) because you will always change the vowel prior to the ending: comenzar; confesar; consentir; convertir.

Acertar – to guess, get right                         encender – to light, kindle
Advertir- to advise, warn                              entender – to understand
Cerrar – to close, shut                                  fregar – to scrub, wash dishes
Comenzar-to begin                                      hervir – to boil
Confesar-to confess                                     mentir – to lie, tell a lie
Consentir-to consent                                    negar – to deny
Convertir – to convert                                  pensar (en) – to think about
Defender – to defend                                   perder – to lose
Empezar – to begin                                      preferir – to prefer
Querer – to want, wish                                 sugerir – to suggest
Referir – to refer                                          temblar – to tremble
Sentir – to feel sorry, regret                         tropezar (con) – to stumble, bump into

3. e changes to i:  The third and final group of stem-changing verbs involves changing the e in the stem to an i (except with nos. and vos.).  This type is found only in ir verbs.

Seguir (to follow)                                        repetir (to repeat)
Sigo            seguimos                                repito          repetimos
Sigues         seguís                                    repites         repetís
Sigue           siguen                                    repite          repiten

Below are several e –> i verbs.  Of the three stem-changing verb groups, this is the smallest.

Bendecir – to bless                             gemir – to groan, moan
Colegir – to deduce                            impedir – to impede, hinder
Competir – to compete                       maldecir – to curse
Conseguir – to obtain, get                   medir – to be long, measure
Corregir – to correct                           pedir – to request, ask for
Decir – to say, tell                              reír – to laugh
Despedir – to fire                               repetir – to repeat
Elegir – to elect                                  seguir – to follow, continue
Freír – to fry                                      servir – to serve

stem-changing verbs in context:

Hola.  Yo soy Osvaldo.  Vendo casas.  Es difícil, pero alguien tiene que hacerlo.  Las casas cuestan mucho estos días, y por eso usualmente muestro cada cliente más o menos veinte casas.  A menudo volvemos a la primera casa y el cliente me dice que él quiera comprar.  Tiemblo con rabia (a veces maldigo o gimo) porque pienso en todo el tiempo que pierdo, pero entonces pienso en mí comisión y entiendo por qué vendo casas.  No te miento cuando te confieso que quiero vender casas para siempre.

Noteworthy Infinitives

As we know by now, many verbs are irregular in Spanish.  However, many of these irregular verbs fall into categories and you can recognize them by their infinitives.  In this unit we will break them down.

Verbs ending with –cer preceeded by a vowel:  The following verbs all end in –cer.  On closer inspection, however, you will notice that the –cer is preceded by a vowel.  All such verbs are irregular only in the yo form, where a z precedes the c.  All other conjugated forms are regular in the present tense.

Conocer (to know a person)                                  parecer (to seem)
Conozco               conocemos                               parezco       parecemos
Conoces               conocéis                                   pareces       parecéis
Conoce                 conocen                                    parece         parecen

Below is a list of commonly used verbs in this category, along with their respective yo forms.

Agradecer             to be thankful                  yo agradezco
Aparecer               to appear                         yo aparezco
Conocer                to know a person            yo conozco
Crecer                   to grow                            yo crezco
Desparecer           to disappear                    yo desaparezco
Establecer             to establish                     yo establezco
Merecer                 to deserve, merit             yo merezco
Nacer                    to be born                        yo nazco
Obedecer              to obey                            yo obedezco
Ofrecer                  to offer                             yo ofrezco
Parecer                  to seem                           yo parezco
Pertenecer             to belong                         yo pertenezco
Placer                    to please, gratify              yo plazco
Reconocer             to recognize                    yo reconozco
Yacer                      to lie down                      yo yazco

Vebs  ending with –ucir: verbs that end with –ucir are similar to verbs ending with –cer in that a z is inserted in the yo form.  As with the preceding, -cer verbs, all other forms are regular.

Producir – to produce                         traducir – to translate
Produzco     producimos                    traduzco      traducimos
Produces     producís                         traduces      traducís
Produce      producen                         traduce        traducen

Conducir              to conduct, drive             yo conduzco
Deducir                to deduce                        yo deduzco
Delucir                  to tarnish, spoil               yo desluzco
Inducir                  to induce, persuade        yo induzco
Introducir              to insert, introduce          yo introduzco
Lucir                     to light up, display           yo luzco
Producir                to produce                      yo produzco
Reducir                 to reduce                        yo reduzco
Traducir                 to translate                     yo traduzco

Verbs ending with –cer or –cir preceded by a consonant: When a verb ending with –cer or –cir is preceded by a consonant, the yo form will have the c replaced by z.  All other forms are regular.

Ejercer – to exert, exercise                           zurcir – to mend
Ejerzo         ejercemos                                 zurzo           zurcimos
Ejerces        ejercéis                                    zurces          zurcís
Ejerce          ejercen                                     zurce           zurcen

Convencer            to convince, persuade               yo convenzo
Ejercer                  to exert, exercise                       yo ejerzo
Esparcir                to scatter, spread                       yo esparzo
Vencer                  to conquer, defeat                       yo venzo
Zurcir                    to mend, darn                              yo zurzo

Verbs ending in –ger or –gir:    The g is soft (sounds like h) in the infinitive, and that same sound must be retained in its conjugated form.  Since a g before an o in Spanish is hard (as in go), the g in the yo form will change to j in order to keep it soft.  All other forms are regular.

Coger (to catch, seize, grab)                         corregir (e–>i) (to correct)
Cojo            cogemos                                   corrijo         corregimos
Coges          cogéis                                      corriges       corregís
Coge           cogen                                        corrige        corrigen

Verbs in this category:

Coger                    to catch, seize, grab                  yo cojo
Colegir (e–>i)       to deduce                                    yo colijo
Corregir (e–>i)     to correct                                     yo corrijo
Dirigir                    to direct                                        yo dirijo
Elegir (e–>i)         to elect, choose                           yo elijo
Escoger                to select                                       yo escojo
Exigir                     to demand, require                      yo exijo
Fingir                     to pretend                                    yo finjo
Proteger                to protect                                     yo protejo
Recoger                to pick up, gather                         yo recojo
Sumergir                to submerge, immerse                yo sumerjo
Surgir                     to surge, spurt                             yo surjo

Verbs ending in –aer:  When an infinitive ends in –aer, its yo form will end with –aigo.  All other forms will be regular

Caer (to fall)                                                traer (to bring)

Caigo          caemos                            traigo          traemos
Caes            caéis                               traes            traéis
cae              caen                                 trae             traen

Verbs in this catgory:

Atraer                             to attract                         yo atraigo
Caer                               to fall                               yo caigo
Contraer                         to contract                      yo contraigo
Raer                               to scrape, rub off             yo raigo
Retraer                           to bring back                   yo retraigo
Sustaer                           to remove, subtract        yo sustraigo
Traer                               to bring                            yo traigo

Verbs ending in –uir (not preceded by a g):   In the previous categories, we saw verbs which, when conjugated, became irregular only in the yo form.  The following group of infinitives produces irregular conjugations in all the singular forms, as well as the third person plural.  In each of these forms a y is added to the stem.

Huir (to flee, run away)                                              destruir (to destroy)
Huyo               huimos                                              destruyo          destruimos
Huyes             huís                                                  destruyes        destuís
Huye               huyen                                                destruye          destruyen

Verbs in this category (along with the yo form)

Concluir                                  to conclude                              yo concluyo
Constituir                                to constitute                            yo constituyo
Construir                                 to construct, build                   yo construyo
Contribuir                                to contribute                            yo contribuyo
Destruir                                   to destroy                                yo destruyo
Fluir                                         to flow                                     yo fluyo
Huir                                         to flee, run away                     yo huyo
Incluir                                      to include                                yo incluyo
Influir                                       to influence                             yo influyo

Verbs ending in –guir.              Earlier in this unit we looked at verbs ending in-ger or –gir that had to retain the soft g.  in this section, our job is to retain the hard g thoughout the conjugations.  In infinitives ending in –guir, the u is merely a hard sound marker; without it, the g would be soft.  Because the infinitive has a hard g sound, so must its conjugations.  And because g in front of o is a naturally hard sound, the u is no longer necessary.  Thus, in the yo form, the u is dropped,  all other forms are regular

Distinguir (to distinguish)                                             seguir (e–>i) (to follow)
Distingo                      distinguimos                           sigo                  seguimos
Distingues                   distinguís                               sigues              seguís
Distingue                     distinguen                              sigue                siguen

Verbs in this category:

Conseguir (e–>i)                     to get, obtain                           yo consigo
Distinguir                                 to distinguish                           yo distingo
Erguir (e–>i)                           to erect, lift up                          yo irgo*
Extinguir                                  to extinguish                            yo extingo
Perseguir (e–>i)                      to pursue, persecute               yo persigo
Seguir (e–>i)                           to follow                                   yo sigo

*in erguir, the stressed e changes to i; irgo; irgues; irgue; erguís; irguen

Reflexive verbs

A verb is reflexive when the subject (the performer of the action) and the object (the receiver of that action) are the same.

For example, the verb in the sentence I see you is not reflexive because I (the subject/actor) and you (the object/receiver) are not the same person.  However, if I look in the mirror and see myself, the verb is reflexive because I (the subject) and me  (the object) are the same person.  Another way of looking at reflexive verbs is to say that the action doesn’t go anywhere

In english, the object of a reflexive verb is usually one of the following: myself, yourself; himself; itself; oneself; themselves.  In spanish, reflexive verbs require reflexive object pronouns, which are employed in the same manner as direct and indirect object pronouns:

If there is one verb in the clause, the object pronoun preceeds the verb.

Me veo.  I see myself.

If there are two verbs in the clause, the object either precedes the first verb or is attached directly to the second verb.  Either is acceptable.

Me quiero ver.  Or quiero verme.       I want to see myself.

Another important distinction is that in English, our use of the reflexive pronoun is quite restricted and generally involves the full being:  I love myself, you know yourself, He hates himself, and so on.

In Spanish, however, this notion of being reflexive is far more expansive.  As long as the action is going back to the actor, it is considered a reflexive verb.  Thus, “I wash my hair”, “You take a bath” and “We brush our teeth” are all examples of sentences that will require reflexive pronouns in Spanish.

These are the reflexive prounouns:

Me              nos
Te               os
Se               se

A few things to note before working with reflexive verbs:

1. Many reflexive verbs are stem-changing (these are noted in the list at the end of this unit), and you will conjugate them just as you learned in the previous units.

2. Many involve the mentioning of a body part or parts (e.g. cepillarse – to brush).  Generally speaking, use the definite article rather than the possesive adjective before the body part (because of the reflexive pronoun, it is obvious whose body is being discussed):

Me cepillo el pelo.  I brush my hair.
Ella se cepilla los dientes.  She brushed her teeth.
Te lavas el pelo.  You wash your hair.

3.  Nearly all verbs in the language can be either reflexive or non-reflexive: I can scratch myself (reflexive) or I can scratch my cat (non-reflexive).  Thus, the list below is far from exhaustive.  However, there are certain actions that usually are reflexive due to the nature of the action (bathing, shaving, brushing teeth, etc.)  For the most part, these are the verbs you will find below.

4.  One unual verb is irse (to go away).  This strays from the general description of the reflexive verb in that this is not a case where the subject and object are the same.  Instead the reflexive pronoun intensifies the action.  One other exception is comerse (to gobble up) which does not mean “to eat oneself” (thank you Ms. Dorothy Richmond)

Some commonly used reflexive verbs:

Acostarse (o–>ue)                    to go to bed
Afeitarse                                     to shave oneself
Bañarse                                      to bathe oneself
Casarse (con alguien)                 to get married; to marry (someone)
Cepillarse                                    to brush oneself
Despertarse (e–>ie)                   to wake up
Desvestirse (e–>i)                     to undress oneself
Dormirse (o–>ue)                       to fall asleep
Ducharse                                    to take a shower
Enfermarse                                 to get sick
Enojarse                                     to get angry, mad
Irse                                             to go away
Lavarse                                       to wash oneself
Levantarse                                  to stand up, get up
Llamarse                                     to call oneself
Mirarse                                       to look at oneself
Peinarse                                     to comb one’s hair
Ponerse                                      to become
Ponerse (la ropa)                        to put on (clothing)
Preocuparse (por)                      to try on (clothing)
Probarse (o–>ue)                       to try on (clothing)
Quitarse                                     to take off, remove (clothing)
Secarse                                      to dry oneself
Sentarse (e–>ie)                        to sit down, seat oneself
Sentirse (e–>ie)                         to feel (emotionally, physically)
Verse                                         to see oneself
Vestirse (e–>i)                           to get dressed


Me quito el sombrero.              Nos vestimos en la mañana.
I take off my hat.                      We get dressed in the moning.
Te acuestas a las once.          You go to bed at eleven o’clock.
Os llamáis Brigada y Pancho. Your names are Brigada and Pancho.
Romeo se casa con Julieta.    Romeo marries Juliet.
Ellas se ponen nerviosas.        They become/ get nervous.

Use of reflexive verbs in context:

Cada noche Marta se acuesta a las once y media.  Se duerme rápidamente y nunca tiene pesadillas.  Cada mañana ella se despierta a las seis y media, pero no se levanta hasta las siete.  Ella entra en el baño donde se cepilla los dientes y se mira en el espejo.  Algunos días se baña, pero usualmente se ducha porque es más rápido y porque Marta se siente mas limpio.  Después de la ducha, Marta se peina y se seca el cabello.  Se viste, anda a la cocina donde se sienta, toma el café, y lee el periódico por quince minutos.  Entonces se va al trabajo.

Gustar et al.

There are several verbs in Spanish (and in English) that are commonly used only in the third person singular or plural.  The most common of these verbs is gustar (to be pleasing to).

While in English one will say, “I like the cat” (“I” being the subject and “the cat” being the object), in Spanish you will say, literally, “The cat pleases me” (“the cat” now being the subject and “I” the object).

The key to the verbs in this section is to remember that they nearly always operate in their third person singular and plural forms.  The things being discussed have their effect on people: frogs fascinate me; noise bothers you; Recipes for chili interests him.

To work with these verbs, you will use the following recipe:

Indirect object pronoun + 3rd person singular or plural verb + noun(s)


Singular subject:

Me gusta el gato.  I like the cat.
No te gusta el libro.   You don’t like the book.
Le gusta la casa.  He likes the house.
No nos gusta el perro.  We don’t like the dog.
Os gusta la luz.  You like the light.
Les gusta la revista.  They like the magazine.

Plural subject:

Me gustan los gatos.  I like the cats.
No te gustan los libros.  You don’t like the books.
And so on.

When mentiontng the name of a person (or persons), place the name (or pronoun) between the preposition a and the indirect pronoun.  This adds clarity and/or emphasis.

A Juan le gusta bailar.   John likes to dance.
A los chicos les gusta hablar.  The boys like to talk.
A ella le encanta el café.  She loves coffee.
A ellos no les falta nada.  They don’t need anything.

Bastar           to be sufficient/ enough to: to suffice
Disgustar      to be repugnant to: to “hate”
Doler (oàue)  to be painful to; to hurt
Encantar       to be enchanting to; to “love”
Faltar             to be lacking to; to be missing to
Fascinar        to be fascinating to
Gustar           to be pleasing to; to “like”
Importer        to be important to
Interesar       to be interesting to
Molestar       to bother
Parecer        to seem; to appear to
Sobrar          to be left over to; to be in surplus


This refers to pronouncing as /s/ the sound written ⟨z⟩ or ⟨c⟩ (when soft; that is, followed by an ⟨i⟩ or an ⟨e⟩) like most other Hispanic American accents, whereas in Europe /θ/ is used. Examples: zapato is /saˈpato/, not /θaˈpato/; and azul is /aˈsul/ not /aˈθul/.

Aspiration or elimination of the /s/

This usually occurs before a consonant or at the end of a word, /s/ is debuccalized to [h] or eliminated altogether. Examples include [lah ˈrosah] instead of [las ˈrosas] (las rosas, ‘the roses’) [loh ðoh] instead of [los ðos] (los dos, ‘the two’). This is also common in other Caribbean basin Spanish-speaking countries.

Aspiration of /x/

/x/ (written as ⟨g⟩ (before /e/ or /i/) and ⟨j⟩) is usually pronounced as [h]. Meaning, [lah muˈheɾeh] instead of [las muˈxeɾes] (las mujeres, ‘the women’), and [hoˈse] instead of [xoˈse] (Jose, ‘Joseph’).

Elimination of /d/ between vowels

This usually happens usually near the end of a word. Examples include [ehˈtao] instead of [esˈtaðo] (estado, ‘state’), and [ˈto.o] instead of [ˈtoðo] (‘all’).

Elimination of /d/ at the end of a word

In this case, a stress is usually placed on the final vowel. Examples include [päˈre] instead of [päˈreð] (pared, ‘wall’) and [mäˈðɾi] instead of [mäˈðɾið] (Madrid).

Change of /r/ to [χ]

Many rural Puerto Ricans do not roll their tongues on the double “r” sound in words (ex. “arroz” or “carro”), making it sound like the Scottish locharroz and carro are pronounced [aˈχos] and [ˈkaχo] respectively.

Change of /r/ to [l]

The /r/ that comes at the end of a syllable (not followed by a vowel) is often changed to an /l/, so that words like “perdón” (forgiveness) and “Puerto Rico” become “peldón” and“Puelto Jjico” respectively.

Change of /n/ to [ŋ]

Word-final /n/ is pronounced as velar [ŋ] ([ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before velar consonants and word-final position), words include consideran [kõnsiˈðeɾãŋ] (‘they consider’) andTeherán [teeˈɾãŋ] (‘Tehran‘).

Shortening of words

Puerto Ricans also often shorten words by eliminating whole syllables. A good example are the words paramadre, and padre (“for”, “mother”, and “father”): Puerto Ricans may pronounce para as /pa/, madre as /mai/, and padre as /pai/.